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石头的呼喊

于中旻

 


斯同

  在英国泰晤士河南岸,坐落着王室的溫莎城堡。边缘上,卻是贫穷的平民,还溷聚着不少痞赖。斯同(John Samuel Stone, 1839-1900)牛津大学毕业的青年,在这里的圣公会,开始他的事奉。斯同在校时酷爱运动,还是划船队长。他性向勇武,一度有志於军伍,到底还是奉献作基督的精兵。
  有一天,走在街上,斯同听到妇女呼救,原来是三名恶少,试图凌辱单独的少女。他不假思索,奋勇上前;一出拳将首名少年击倒在地,另一人被抓住立即求饶,其同党则乘机奔逃。这一义举,赢得当地人的敬爱,也显出其嫉恶如仇,见义勇为,不计自身安危的性格。


科伦苏主教
  那时,自由主义的新思想,在教会中流行。英国南非殖民地的教会受到感染。科伦苏主教(John William Colenso, Bishop of Natal, S.A.),倾向独神论信仰,並圣经批判,质疑超然的启示,引起圣公会的分裂。
  加尔文的名言:“在主人受到攻击的时候,狗会卫主吠叫;如果主受攻击,我靜默不言,就是懦夫。”斯同绝非懦夫,当然不会置身事外。不过,他不是凭血气爭战,而是像文弱的加尔文一样,用真理装备信徒。
  他牧养的教会,会众多是简朴的信徒,也不能超然出世;只是他们的教育水准不高。因此,斯同把使徒信经十二则,作成诗歌,词汇简单,而韻律严正,以便於记忆。这也是当年的米兰主教安波罗修,在敌挡亚流派皇后时所作的,与“寓教於娛”原则相同,成为信条圣诗(Lyra Fidelium)系列。其九“教会唯一的根基”(The Church’s One Foundation),由查理卫斯理之孙Samuel Sebastian Wesley谱曲(作曲者取Johann Sebastian Bach之名,由於其景仰此著名圣乐世家。)含七节。(附一)诗集於1866年出版。
  1867年,英国圣公会坎特伯里大主教(Charles Longley, 1794-1868)在其Lambeth Palace召集聚会“for brotherly counsel & encouragement”,大主教为宅邸主人並第一主教;斯同既无意厕身政治,也淡泊名利,並非主教团成员,但在此次聚会中,以同唱这青年诗人“教会唯一的根基”诗歌开始,实表明对作者认可的意义。至今仍然彷彿可感受其激扬的属灵气氛。会议通过解除科伦苏主教职位。以后,Lambeth聚会发展为圣公会团契。
  1870年,斯同移任圣保罗海格斯屯(St. Paul’s Haggerston),教区在伦敦市郊,那时是工厂和贫民区。斯同不仅擅於登坛说教,也不是石头心,体会人的疾苦;每见女工们在早晨麇集纺织厂前,等候工厂开门,同情他们远来不易,於清晨六时半即敞开教堂的门,请他们进来,有短讲勉励及祷告,让他们在美轮美奐的教堂內,休息,读经或自己作些女红,享受主翅膀下的真正溫暖,开工时间到再去作工。斯同还有许多这类关怀贫苦,服务群众的事,深获群众的欢迎,而赢得“穷人牧师”(The Poor man’s Pastor)的称号。这多么像耶稣的事奉,传福音给贫穷的人!

  今天世道沦丧,愈趋愈下,魔鬼见自己的时候不多,变本加厉,努力引诱掳掠人的灵魂。教会则无动於衷,淡漠处之。在信仰上,职业宗教家,以逢迎富贵,奔竞豪门为能事;复自求多福,甘愿作哑巴狗。更可怜的,是本身不明白真理;亚里斯多德(Aristotle)说:“通国皆瞎子,独眼也称王。”可是有些领袖,也在瞎子之列,卻自称有三只眼睛,智慧通天;或他的亲信极其精明,足以独当大任,用不着其余的人操心。如此就很难办事了。
  诗篇之中有十一篇“训诲诗”,题首记明大卫者有7:32, 52, 53, 54, 55, 78, 142;“可拉后裔”3:42, 44, 45;记“可拉后裔”並“希幔”者88。虽然诗篇多具有训诲的功能,这些冠名训诲的诗篇,似乎勉励受众建立信仰与生活的联系。
  斯同不仅写了圣诗,也写抒情诗,有的还语含讽刺,其中包括传奇,牧野,敘述,纪事,记念,幽默,和十四行诗等,非常广泛。不过,总是蘊涵属灵的意义,是以不同的形式,把福音带到教堂的牆外。例如:“理性雏鸡的独白”(附二),可以达到勃朗宁“独白”的水平,而兼有隋弗特的韻味。
  今天的信徒,还沒有都沦落到背道离经的地步,只是对於圣工的淡漠,特別在品质上缺乏兴趣,也包括忽略信仰与文工。缅怀斯同的诗作,看现代教会音乐,几乎尽以发表人的情绪,严重忽略教导与敬畏,是多么不同,效果也可以想见。
  今天斯同的声音在哪里?

附一:

教会唯一的根基

The Church’s One Foundation

教会唯一的根基
耶稣基督为主。
本是祂的新创造
借水和道而出。
主从天降临寻她
作圣洁的新妇;
为她得生而受死
流血使她得赎。

The Church’s one foundation
Is Jesus Christ her Lord,
She is His new creation
By water and the Word.
From heaven He came and sought her
To be His holy bride;
With His own blood He bought her
And for her life He died.

教会蒙召自万邦,
主內成为一身;
同蒙救恩的凭证,
一主一生一信;
唯一圣名同尊崇,
同一圣粮同享,
持守同一的盼望,
赖主诸般厚恩。

She is from every nation,
Yet one o’er all the earth;
Her charter of salvation,
One Lord, one faith, one birth;
One holy Name she blesses,
Partakes one holy food,
And to one hope she presses,
With every grace endued.

教会永不能毀坏,
亲爱的主护持,
引导供应並眷爱,
同在直到末期:
虽不乏人恨教会,
圈中虛假之子,
教会永远会得胜
克服叛徒仇敌。

The Church shall never perish!
Her dear Lord to defend,
To guide, sustain, and cherish,
Is with her to the end:
Though there be those who hate her,
And false sons in her pale,
Against both foe or traitor
She ever shall prevail.

受世人严酷迫害,
成为嘲笑戏景;
異端侵害她健康,
复有宗派分爭:
守望圣徒呼求问:
“何时才到天明?”
一夜哀哭快过去,
早晨欢乐歌声。

Though with a scornful wonder
Men see her sore oppressed,
By schisms rent asunder,
By heresies distressed:
Yet saints their watch are keeping,
Their cry goes up, “How long?”
And soon the night of weeping
Shall be the morn of song!

受尽劳苦和患难,
复有纷扰爭战,
等候喜乐的团圆
永远享受平安;
直到荣耀的远景
渴望成为眼见,
教会伟大的胜利
就是安息无限。

‘Mid toil and tribulation,
And tumult of her war,
She waits the consummation
Of peace forevermore;
Till, with the vision glorious,
Her longing eyes are blest,
And the great Church victorious
Shall be the Church at rest.

她在地上实联合
与三一神合一,
她的安息已赢得
奧祕甜美团契,
与她所有的儿女
靠赖主的能力
引渡过死亡权势,
安息伊甸美地。

Yet she on earth hath union
With God the Three in One,
And mystic sweet communion
With those whose rest is won,
With all her sons and daughters
Who, by the Master’s hand
Led through the deathly waters,
Repose in Eden land.

喜乐圣洁众信徒!
求主赐恩扶助
我们也微弱卑下
在天与你同住;
越过高山的邉限
甘美蒙恩新妇
在活泉涌流原野
永远和主安居!

O happy ones and holy!
Lord, give us grace that we
Like them, the meek and lowly,
On high may dwell with Thee:
There, past the border mountains,
Where in sweet vales the Bride
With Thee by living fountains
Forever shall abide!

附二:

理性雏鸡的独白

    图中一位初孵出的雏鸡对着它脫除的破蛋壳沉思

顶希奇!
顶古怪,—虽然是顶好的改变!
幽暗的囚室,你已经消失!
我受拘禁的思想得到更广阔的视野,
並且,就像我的双腳,自由了;
不再那么可怜的受限制:
现在自由的抓刨又寻索,探查並窥视,
去弄出那些隐祕。
作为一只自由思想的雏鸡能否活在怀疑?
无疑的,现在我就是:
重压在我心头这个问题,
我可不是那种虛饰或规避:
我不会盲目,我不能无视!

现在,我来探知;
首先,我要晓得怎地进到那里?
然后,我何在前时?
还有,我何不早些出离?

  我得意!
就这三个谜(还多的是)
足夠叫我头脑困疲!
不过,让我再思。
我怎知道我曾在內里?
现在,我反思,那是,我仍然保持,
在我自傲的底层,低於我的理智
想到我曾经托身
在那么鄙陋悲惨的居室
  如那老旧的蛋皮!
当然我不能!我怎会臥棲,
身体长喙和羽毛,腿距並两翼,
並我深心的华美心志,
  在那里?

自从我宣告,任何我不能明白的,我绝不相信。
我是一只鸡,不会受你骗被你欺。
似是难以置信的,
我为一个思想陷入极深的失意。
我从哪里来?啊,哪里,到底?
这是一团谜,极难作解释。
我有了!甚麽,当然地,
万物都模铸借某种凝聚的能力
从太空中某处来的原子,
偶然的遇合在一起:—
如今,在此!
就如喙长在我脸上同样清晰。

  我听到的是甚麽声息?
我老母对我咯咯叫!她的老脾气,
我称那么的偏执又无知;
时髦的智慧算为落伍被棄!

  我不能尊敬任何老的东西。
听她说:“我亲爱的,你是个小傻瓜,
  可怜,你确实如此!
在哪背上有块蛋壳皮!”
多么武断!在我的背上,绝无其事!
  我不相信它存在那里;
因为我不能眼见;我在此宣示,
  她所有哄骗出自爱惜,
我总不肯相信,除非亲视确知!

 

The Soliloquy of a Rationalistic Chicken

  On the Picture of a Newly Hatched Chicken Contemplating
  the Fragments of Its Native Shell

   MOST strange!
Most queer,—although most excellent a change!
Shades of the prison-house, ye disappear!
My fettered thoughts have won a wider range,
  And, like my legs, are free;
No longer huddled up so pitiably:
Free now to pry and probe, and peep and peer,
  And make these mysteries out.
Shall a free-thinking chicken live in doubt?
For now in doubt undoubtedly I am:
  This problem’s very heavy on my mind,
And I'm not one to either shirk or sham:
  I won't be blinded, and I won't be blind!
  Now, let me see;
First, I would know how did I get in there?
  Then, where was I of yore?
Besides, why didn't I get out before?

   Bless me!
Here are three puzzles (out of plenty more)
Enough to give me pip upon the brain!
  But let me think again.
How do I know I ever was inside?
Now I reflect, it is, I do maintain,
Less than my reason, and beneath my pride
  To think that I could dwell
In such a paltry miserable cell
  As that old shell.
Of course I couldn't! How could I have lain,
Body and beak and feathers, legs and wings,
And my deep heart's sublime imaginings,
  In there?

I meet the notion with profound disdain;
It's quite incredible; since I declare
(And I'm a chicken that you can't deceive)
What I can't understand I won't believe.
Where did I come from, then? Ah! where, indeed?
This is a riddle monstrous hard to read.
  I have it! Why, of course,
All things are moulded by some plastic force
Out of some atoms somewhere up in space,
Fortuitously concurrent anyhow:—
  There, now!
That's plain as is the beak upon my face.

What's that I hear?
My mother cackling at me! Just her way,
So prejudiced and ignorant I say;
So far behind the wisdom of the day!

  What's old I can't revere.
Hark at her. “You're a little fool, my dear,
  That's quite as plain, alack!
As is the piece of shell upon your back!”
How bigoted! upon my back, indeed!
  I don't believe it's there;
For I can't see it; and I do declare,
  For all her fond deceivin',
What I can't see I never will believe in!

(同载於圣经网 aboutbible.net 之“天上人间”)

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2019.12

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